Hey Students, this Human Development in Bangladesh Essay For All Class such as: 5,6,7,8,9,SSC,HSC.
Introduction: Human Development is the latest addition to the concept of development. Human Development implies the development of the human being himself instead of his surroundings. They emphasized the issues like education, health, life expectancy, the log of GDP etc. They focused on the human being as an object of development. The position of Bangladesh regarding Human Development is not good. Bangladesh is at the lowest position among SAARC countries. The rate of infant mortality in Bangladesh is alarming.
The concept of Human Development
There is no blueprint of Human Development. It has been defined in the UNDP’s report as ‘the enlargement of the range of people’s choices.’ It is an extension, enlargement, and deepening of the now somewhat unpopular basic needs approach.
Some basic needs interpretations regarding development have run in terms of commodity bundles or specific needs satisfactions, and it has been said that human development gets away from this. Amartya Sen has analyzed Human Development in terms of ‘capabilities and ‘functionings’ and neither satisfaction nor happiness nor commodities. So, according to him, development means peoples freedom of doing’ and ‘being’ Paul Streeten said, a shorthand way of describing Human Development is a variation of Abraham Lincoln’s definition of democracy. It is the development of the people, for the people, by the people. (Here)
– of the people implies adequate income generation;
– for the people implies social services for those who need help and the generation of secondary income,
– and by the people means participation in the process of development Further he said that ‘It could also be interpreted as the economic, social and political dimension of development.’
Indicators/Indices of Human Development
The concept of human development is much wider and richer than what can be caught in any index or set of indicators. To identify the position of a country in the field of human development, Sudhir Anand and Amartya Sen have suggested the division of all countries into three groups-low, medium, and high levels of human development. The following table illustrates the indicators of countries belonging to three different levels of human development:
|Human development level||Low||Medium||High|
|Human development indicators||1.1 Life expectancy||1.1 Life expectancy1.2 Under 5 mortality||1.1 Life expectancy|
1.2 Under 5 Mortality
1.3 Maternal Mortality
|2.1 Adult literacy||21. Adult Literacy|
2.2 Secondary School enrollment
|21. Adult Literacy|
2.2 Sec. School Enrolment
2.3 Tertiary Enrollment
|3.1 Log of GDP perhead||3.1 Log of GDP per head|
3.2 Incidence of poverty
|3.1 Log of GDP per head|
3.2 Incidence of poverty
3.3 Gini coefficient corrected mean national income
Importance of Human Development
Human beings are both ends in themselves and means of production. So, the development of human beings themselves is considered as the pre-condition for higher economic growth as well as national development. So, the importance of human development could be justified on the following grounds:
1. Means of higher productivity: Human development is a means of higher productivity. A well-nourished, healthy, educated, skilled, alert labor force is the most important productive asset
2. Reducing human reproductively and population growth: Human Development contributes to reducing human reproductively by lowering the desired family size. This is generally desirable, especially in developing countries, a citizen with proper education is generally conscious about national priorities and problems and it would be very easy for the authority concerned to motivating him for the desired end like family planning.
3. Improvement in physical environment: Human environment is good for the physical environment. The poor are both the cause and victim of environmental degradation. So, proper health services for them and making them conscious about their health, environment and development is important to improve the physical environment.
4. Social security and stability : Reduced poverty contributes to a healthy civil society, democracy and greater social stability and security. Besides a self-conscious educated and healthy community is always conscious about their rights, duties, and national priorities. So, they would also believe in peace and social solidarity.
5. Increase in the standard of living: Human Development itself means
increased standard of living. Better health services, higher literacy, more food intake and equal distribution of resources as well as a socioeconomic system free form business all these are the manifestation of higher living standard in the society.
6. Industrialization: A skilled labour force is a prerequisite for the industrialization of the country. The uneducated, unskilled, ill-health workers can not perform their duties effectively and the rate of their productivity is low.
7. Human Development and technological advancement: It has been
observed that the high economic rates of return to schooling do not decline rapidly with the level of development. The people equipped with the knowledge of modern science and technology are requisite for technological advancement. Because they can adopt new technological devices easily and effectively.
It is obvious that Bangladesh’s position in the area of human development is very low. Even our efforts to upgrade our position is also minimal. In fact, corruption, improper planning, lack of innovative attitude of our planners and leaders, etc. are mainly responsible for such a poor position. So, without necessary actions against corruption, and measures for scientific and technological development as well as quality education for the masses, all the shouting, and slogans for human development would be futile.