Introduction: In the modern state bureaucrats are playing a significant role in the expansion of the government’s duty and responsibility. The duty of bureaucrats is increasing during day to day life in developing countries like Bangladesh. As modern states are welfare states, so they are to complete a great number of works. And for this, the government is to depend upon the bureaucrat. Both in developed and developing country bureaucrats play a very important role.
Definition of Bureaucracy: Literally bureaucracy means desk government. But its practical definition is so broad. According to Professor Finer, ‘The civil is a professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled. Its numbers are a measure of the activities of the state and an indication of its nature. According to Professor Ogg, ‘The body of civil servants is an expert, professional, non-political permanent and subordinate staff.’ The father of bureaucracy Max Weber pointed out— ‘Bureaucracy is the clear-cut division of individual activities with regarded as duties inherent in the office. He added that ‘The bureaucracy is a system of administration characterized by expertness, impartiality and the absence of humanity.
Characteristics of Bureaucrats:
- Bureaucrats are bound to abide by the command from the top level.
- They govern a principle of hierarchy.
- Their duties and responsibilities are fixed and thereby they have to work.
- All servents are appointed according to their qualifications in terms of examinations and viva-voce.
- They take the job professionally.
- Their promotion depends on merit and seniority.
- The duties of government servants are essentially easy and routine.
- They are capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency.
- They emphasize red tape, some absurd laws, and their trend of work.
The Role of Bureaucrats
Determining Policy: In our country, another country also, bureaucrats particularize the policy of government and minister only sign. Government policies are complex. So for this work, artistic skilled is a must, bureaucrats are those who have this skill.
Framing Legislation: In Bangladesh to enact any law, a bureaucrat plays a very important role. Important bills are presented in the parliament are prepared by the bureaucrats. They justify ins and outs of the bill and then its presented in the parliament.
Impact on the Legislature: They supply necessary information regarding different govt. departments and organizations. Sometimes they influence the conference committee according to their own interest.
Advisers of Political Rulers: The political leaders are elected by the people. They do not have vast knowledge about the complex affairs of the state. But it is a matter of sorrow that the duties for making policy are vested upon them. Hence the bureaucrats give necessary advice. Prof. Finer points out, ‘In the modern states, the higher ranks of executive … advice the policymakers.
Mediation Among Different Groups: Bureaucrats are many and multifaceted groups in a country. They try to get there out most privilege and interest making pressure on the government. In this situation, the bureaucrats work as a mediator and solve the problem through proper negotiations and help to maintain the sustainable situation in the state.
Implementing Legislation and Policies: Bureaucrats are not only drawn up laws and principles but also sustainable them. Indeed the bureaucracy is more influential in this regard. They can repeal and enact any law according to their necessity.
Keeping Contract Between the Public and Government: In Bangladesh, bureaucrats play the role of liaison between the government and the public. They inform the people about the government activities and people inform them about their problems and want solutions. Bureaucrats surely play a vital role in information communication. They send important information from one department to another to sustain a close relationship. The government directly depends on them for information and hence on the basis of the information, the government takes decisions. Actually, they maintain a network of information throughout the country. As a result, the government does not have to face any problem to decide anything within the state.
In Terms of the Bitterments of the State and the Administration: The excellence of the administration of any country depends on bureaucracy. In this affair, the US philosopher John Dewey said, ‘A final important function of bureaucracies is that of their own internal management.
Development Works: The success of various developing activities largely depends upon the bureaucrats. They devote in nation building works and plans and materialize them timely.
Implementation of Social Change: Bureaucrats play role in social change. They help the government to understand the changing social demands and find out the way to fulfill them.
Non-political Role: Bureaucrats play a non-political role in their service life. But it is a matter of regret that bureaucrats in Bangladesh, to a large extent, are derailed, very often they are found in liason with the ruling political party. Sometimes ruling party oppresses the bureaucrats who do not submit themself to the whim of the ministers on leaders. We have witnessed such quarrels between ministers and bureaucrats.
The Role and Functions of Bureaucrat in Developing Countries: In the globalization age, the role and functions of the bureaucrat is so much important in developing countries. In the modern liberal democratic system bureaucracy is an inseparable part of the government. In the welfare state, the government always try to fulfill the various demand of people. The increasing of governmental role and function increases the responsibility and liability of a bureaucrat. So, In developing country the role and functions of government highly depend on bureaucrat. According to Pro. Finer-‘The functions of the civil servant in the modern state are not merely on the improvement of government; without it, indeed government itself would be impossible. The bureaucrat performs in favor of the state ins and outs of an important task.’
In fine, we can say that the role of bureaucrats can not be ignored in Bangladesh, a developing country. For this reason, the bureaucrats must be honest, responsible, controlled and corruption-free, because the selfish or corrupted persons vested with authority is as dangerous as the sharp weapons in the hands of a child. Hence the bureaucrats have a key duty to maintains a congenial relationship between the government and them for the larger interest. So, if they can avoid corruption, nepotism and work with patriotism and impartial political attitude, Bangladesh with improving faster.