The ‘Jihad Movement’ led by Syed Ahmed Shaheed of Rae Bareli is remembered in history as one of the most significant and widespread mass uprisings in the Muslim history of the subcontinent. This movement was mainly aimed at bringing back the full faith of the Muslim people, who were tainted by the various influences, by freeing them from the clutches of shirk, bid’at, foreign imitation, etc.
With the beginning of the fall of the Mughal Sultanate, a massive coup d’etat of anti-Muslim forces like Jats, Marathas, Sikhs, etc. began. East Bengal was ruled by English merchants. Sikh feudal lord Ranjit Singh, in direct collaboration with the British, occupied the whole of the Punjab and the North-West Frontier Provinces, establishing a strong Sikh state in Lahore. The Muslim masses of the Punjab and the Frontier Provinces gradually succumbed to the aggression of this new Sikh power.
On the other hand, the religious and moral life of Muslims across the subcontinent has deteriorated drastically. Various superstitions and foreign ideas have taken the place of faith and belief. The Muslim people became nominal Muslims. Among the aristocracy of the society, Shia meditation, Pir Puja, Gore Puja and innumerable Shirk-Bid’at are permanently rooted. Completely indifferent to the growing decline that has descended on all walks of national life, this level of people has embarked on a suicidal path of luxury.
On the other hand, the lower class Muslims became accustomed to the various practices of the surrounding Hindu society. Muslim people in many areas began to consider taking the Hindu title with the name as a sign of glorious nobility.
The Sikhs used to enslave Muslim women in many plundered villages in the Punjab and the border provinces and sell them in public markets. Azan and Jumu’ah-Jamaat are closed in the mosque.
Shah Abdul Aziz, the worthy son and successful heir of Imamul Hind Shah Waliullah, had then reached the end of his life. Hazrat Mujaddid al-Fasani (R) expressed his eager desire to start a comprehensive reform movement in order to fulfill the responsibility of the struggling legacy that was flowing in his arteries. He also planned to start an armed struggle against the aggressive Sikhs and Marathas by accumulating organizational strength. But due to old age it was not possible to implement this plan. So he entrusted this responsibility to his beloved disciple Maulana Syed Ahmad Shahid. Aiming at the immense morale and spiritual strength of Syed Ahmed, a handsome young man from a traditional Bujurg family, he joined his nephew Shah Ismail, son-in-law Maulana Abdul Hai Lucknowvi and another dear disciple Maulana Imamuddin Bangali.
Needless to say, the adventurous role of Maulana Imamuddin, the heroic son of Bengal, in organizing, directing and controlling the flow of life of this great movement of Syed Ahmad Shahid deserves special mention.
Syed Sahib first started a massive preaching tour with the aim of religious reform of the Muslim people. At one point, realizing that it would not be possible to achieve the desired goal by mere preaching, without taking practical steps to counter the hostile forces, he proceeded to implement a plan to launch an armed jihad against the Sikhs. Before starting the jihad, he felt the need to create a group of dedicated Mujahideen and to arouse a wide response among the people.
As part of the implementation of a plan to create a Mujahideen with sufficient spiritual strength, he announced his departure for Hajj. In those days, the tour was as difficult as it was time consuming. Mr. Syed plans to complete the tour in at least three years.
It has already been mentioned that Maulana Imamuddin Bangali was one of the few notable disciples of Syed Ahmad Shaheed at the beginning of his movement. Another prominent leader and organizer of the jihad movement was a prominent pious scholar named Sufi Nur Muhammad. They were both Syed’s prominent caliphs and the first Qatari leaders and organizers of the jihad movement. It was through these two great pious heroes that the people of Bengal came into direct contact with the jihad movement. Among them Maulana Imamuddin was a resident of Hajipur in Noakhali district and Sufi Nur Muhammad was a native of Chittagong. Besides, after staying in Calcutta for three months on a pilgrimage, Syed Sahib was able to directly involve the masses in the movement.
Syed Sahib left Rae Bareli on the way to Calcutta by boat with four hundred companions after the Eid prayers on 1st Shawwal (1820 AD) of 1236 AH. The purpose was to hire a ship from Calcutta to Jeddah.
After gathering Manzil and Tablighi at different places on the way, this caravan entered the land of Bengal on the way to Rajmahal after a long four months. Describing the reception of the caravan on the border of Bengal, the author of Wakaye-e-Ahmadi said: Munshi Muhammadi Ansari, a prominent man, took Hazrat Syed Sahib from the palace to his village ten to twelve crores away There Munshi Munshi Muhammadi Ansari’s father Munshi Roufuddin, Munshi Makhdum Bakhsh, Hasan Ali, Fazlur Rahman and Munshi Azizur Rahman took the oath of allegiance. Among them Munshi Raufuddin and Munshi Fazlur Rahman joined the caravan.
Departing from Rajmahal, the 5th tour caravan reached Murshidabad. Most of the prominent people of Murshidabad were Shiites at that time. Taziya and various superstitious ceremonies were their main preoccupation. Syed Sahib ordered Maulana Abdul Hai to perform Waz. Under the influence of Waz, hundreds of people took the oath of allegiance in the hands of Syed Sahib and got rid of all superstitions. Departing from Murshidabad, the caravan stayed at Katwa for one night. From there the caravan reached Hooghly port. Thousands of people were made disciples after staying in Hughli for seven days.
While the caravan was at Hooghly port, Munshi Aminuddin, a prominent lawyer from Calcutta, came by boat to meet Hazrat Syed Sahib and requested all the people of the caravan to be his guests.
Munshi Aminuddin was an influential and wealthy man of Calcutta. Noticing Munshi’s sincere devotion and interest, Syed agreed to accept his hospitality. Munshi Aminuddin had purchased a spacious garden house on the outskirts of the city for the hospitality of Hazrat Syed’s caravan. The caravan was well accommodated in this house for all men and women. The population of those who joined the caravan on the way was about five hundred.
Mr. Syed’s caravan stayed in Calcutta for three long months. During this period, waz-mahfil was held every day after Fajr at the place of caravan. At the request of the devotees, Syed Sahib used to attend meetings held at the houses of different people. The Jamaat of the Mujahideen of Bengal started organizing from here.
According to Ahmadi in Wakaye-e-Ahmadi, hundreds of people used to gather at Munshi Aminuddin’s garden house every day. He used to listen to the advice of Syed Sahib and take bayat and repent from shirk-bid’ad.
Maulana Imamuddin left for his native Noakhali and Sufi Nur Muhammad for Chittagong and Sylhet to reach Syed Sahib’s invitation in remote areas of Bengal. Maulana Imamuddin was accompanied by half a hundred eminent persons from Noakhali, Comilla and Momenshahi areas. Sufi Nur Muhammad was brought by some eminent people from Sylhet and Chittagong. Accompanying the Sufi caravan were Maulana Abdul Hakim Chatgami, one of the leading Mujahideen organizers in Bengal, Munshi Ibrahim of Mymensingh and Syed Hamza Arakani among others.
It is said that during his visit to Calcutta, Maulvi Barkatullah and Maulvi Enayetullah alias Qazi Miyazan and two others received the caliphate of Hazrat Syed.
After spending two long years on Hajj, Syed returned to Calcutta via Bombay. On his way back, Syed Saheb stayed in Calcutta for some time and arranged for the organization of the Jamaat of Bengal. Maulana Imamuddin was sent to Noakhali, Comilla, Dhaka and Momenshahi areas of East Bengal. Maulvi Barkatullah: North Bengal and Sufi Nur Muhammad started preaching and organizing around Calcutta.
“The main goal of the movement was to reform the beliefs and practices of the Muslim masses. The second is to create a strong feeling among the masses about the Islamic way of life. The third stage is to build the necessary resistance against all kinds of hostile forces. In the fourth stage, to pledge to support the Central Mujahideen Movement with all our lives and property.
Under the leadership of Maulana Imamuddin, Sufi Nur Muhammad, Maulvi Barkatullah and Maulana Abdul Hakim, great success was achieved in all four phases of the movement in Bengal. In the words of the English bureaucrat Hunter: “There was no town in Bengal where Syed Sahib’s message of reform did not cause a great stir among the Muslims. The youths of every religious family were anxiously waiting to go to the border to wage jihad, suddenly one day they would go out to join the Mujahideen caravan on the border, blindfolded by the British government spies. Even farmers who were unable to pay their rent would not be reluctant to pay regularly for jihad. ”
After completing his Hajj pilgrimage for two years and eleven months, Syed reached Rae Bareli. By then, his invitation had spread from the Burmese border to Delhi. As a result of his reform efforts, millions of people were freed from all the trappings of shirk and bid’at and became inspired by the revolutionary mantra of Khales Tawhid.
One of the main objectives of Syed’s reform movement was to create a free environment for the Muslim people of every town in the subcontinent to worship God in a free and independent environment. When he returned from Hajj, he heard that the aggressive Sikh feudal lords had stopped the call to prayer and congregation in mosques all over the Punjab and the Frontier Provinces, barred all opportunities for free worship, and forcibly enslaved Muslim women and children in many areas. That is, he declared his determination to start an armed struggle against the Sikh forces without further delay. First line caliphs like Maulana Ismail Shaheed, Maulana Abdul Hai, Maulana Imamuddin Bangali and Sufi Nur Muhammad were sent to gather people in the caravan of jihad. Momen Dehlavi, one of the foremost poets of Urdu literature, was a prominent disciple and caliph of Syed Sahib. He composed songs of jihad. It spread throughout the subcontinent through the mouths of the disciples.
On his way back from Syed’s Hajj, Enayetullah, a young man from Bhagirathi, joined his caravan and gained the caliphate. He took the responsibility of inspiring the people by reciting Momen Dehlavi’s Jihadi Qasida in the villages of Bengal.
Syed Sahib wrote a proclamation explaining the purpose and goal of his impending jihad. The statement of the manifesto was as follows:
“The Sikh community has been occupying a large area of Lahore and its environs for some time. Their oppression has crossed all the boundaries of civilization. They have killed thousands of innocent Muslims. Has humiliated countless Muslims. Azan in the mosque is forbidden. Cow slaughter has stopped completely. Jihad has been declared to confront the aggressive Sikh forces by awakening and organizing the concerned Muslim people after overcoming the limits of oppression. Already, thousands of mujahideen have begun marching towards the border province to take part in jihad. Insha-Allah: Armed jihad is starting soon. Every Muslim is being invited to take part in this great work according to his ability. ”
The day of declaring armed jihad according to the documents of the lawsuit filed by the British against the Mujahideen was December 21, 1826. From that day onwards, the armed Mujahideen landed on the frontier.
Maulana Zafar Thaneshwari wrote in his autobiography: “When Maulana Syed Ahmad declared his determination to wage jihad against the Sikhs hundreds of miles away, many asked him what it meant to go to the far frontier areas and fight the Sikhs without fighting the British inside the country.
Syed Sahib replied, “First of all, the British have not yet directly interfered in the religious freedom of the Muslims. The Sikhs are interfering in religious activities. Secondly, the active cooperation of the Sikhs in strengthening the English domination in this country is well known. Third, if the border is Muslim-dominated, it will be easier to liberate the entire subcontinent from all kinds of enemies in the next stage. ”
With some of the above specific goals in mind, Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed started his journey from Rae Bareli, his birthplace in the early year 1241 AH (1825 AD), with five to six thousand companions. According to the author of the caravan, the number of Mujahideen in Bengal was close to one thousand. Among them were about forty leading men in charge of various important works. The caravan, which was on its way to restore the lost religious rights of the Muslims in the Punjab and the border areas, continued on its way to the Indus, avoiding the Punjab route so as not to obstruct the journey. On the way he crossed the Bolan valley via Hyderabad, Indus and Bahwalpur, first to Kandahar and then to Kabul. Along the way, the call for jihad continued among the Muslims of Hyderabad and Bahwalpur areas of Sindh. Maulana Ismail Shaheed, Maulana Abdul Hai, Maulana Imamuddin Bangali, Sufi Nur Muhammad and other leading scholars and scholars continued to inspire the people with the mantra of jihad.
Regular communication was maintained from Hindustan to Kabul and arrangements were made to reach new people and money.
After staying in Kabul for some time, the caravan reached Peshawar via the Khyber Pass. A subedar was then stationed in Peshawar on behalf of Ranjit C. He used to collect revenue and send it to Lahore. The camp of the Sikh army was at a fort on the Punjab border on the east side of the river. From the fort to Peshawar there were regular armed guards.
Troops were sent from the fort whenever the people of a town or town started disobeying. Free looting and fire connection were carried out. The people of that area were killed indiscriminately.
Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed reached Nowshera with the caravan leaving behind the valley of Peshawar with the aim of severing the direct contact of the Sikhs with Peshawar in the center of the frontier province. Here he took up position on the shores of Darya Abasin and sent a detailed letter to Ranjit Singh’s Lahore court through one of his own envoys. The letter elaborated on the aims and objectives of his campaign, calling for an end to the atrocities perpetrated against the Muslim people and the release of the forcibly occupied Muslim territories.
The arrogant Lahore court, without replying to the letter of an apostate fakir, sent a large army under the leadership of Sardar Budhsingh with orders to punish the caravan of Mujahideen. Budhsingh was confronted by the Mujahideen at Akorakhatak, seven or eight miles from Nowshera. In the first encounter, Sardar Budhsingh’s forces were defeated and forced to flee.
As a result of Budhsingh’s defeat at the Battle of Akorakhatak, the Sikhs lost direct contact with Peshawar. After hearing the news, Subedar Yar Muhammad Khan of Peshawar and his brother Pir Muhammad Khan started communicating with the Mujahideen through letters.
Ever since the expulsion of Sardar Budhsingh, the Mujahideen had been fearing a major attack from the Sikhs. Nowshera began preparations to prevent a possible attack on Sido, east of Nowshera. Meanwhile, news came of a gathering of Sikhs at a place called Hazro. According to the diary ‘Manjura’, a night raid group formed by the Mujahideen of Bengal launched a surprise attack and completely destroyed the gathering. During this operation, a large number of arms and supplies were seized by the Mujahideen.
After winning two consecutive clashes, the morale of the Mujahideen increased and the confidence of the people of the area increased a lot. At a gathering of prominent scholars and tribal chiefs of the area, on 11 January 1827, Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed was declared the “Amirul Muminin” and the pledge of Jihad and Imamate was taken in his hands. The Amir of Peshawar, Sardar Yar Muhammad Khan, sent a letter through a messenger, maintaining his allegiance to the Amir al-Mu’minin, setting up a consultative council of eminent scholars to facilitate the enactment of Islamic law in the entire border province. According to the author of ‘Manzura’, Maulana Imamuddin Bangali was one of those who were given important responsibilities in the consultative meeting of the Peshawar-based Islamic government.
From the very beginning a section of the Pathan tribes could not agree with the activities of Hazrat Syed Ahmed. They had various material interests with the Sikhs. Moreover, the hard-line reform movement of Mr. Syed started to create adverse reactions in the mindset which was immersed in various long-standing superstitions. Pathans are generally a pious people. Taking advantage of their natural tendency, innumerable pir mats were formed in every area. Most of these pirs were unrelated to the rules of the Shari’a and were steeped in superstition. Syed Saheb’s reform movement sought to jeopardize their matrimonial interests. So they started all kinds of propaganda against him. The English advisers at the Lahore court did not miss the opportunity to inflame the opposition in various ways. A variety of fatwas were issued against the mujahideen movement by a class of professional scholars from Punjab and the border. Some followers of the Sikhs were tactfully infiltrated into the caravan of the Mujahideen. The night before the battle of Sindu started, food poisoning of Hazrat Syed Sahib was mixed. In the morning Maulana Muhammad Ismail went to Syed Sahib’s bedroom and found him lying unconscious. Foam is coming out of his mouth. There was some relief after receiving medical treatment. In the meantime, a large Sikh force had started attacking Sindur Maidan. The Mujahideen did not have the weapons or manpower to deal with this modern armed force. Syed Sahib himself was dying of poisoning. It was in this situation that the Mujahideen started fighting. When Syed Sahib felt a little better, he leaned on the shoulders of a few people, got on his horse and went to the field. After a fierce battle, the Mujahideen were partially defeated and were forced to retreat. But the Sikh army could not advance.
After the outcome of the battle of Sindu turned unfavorable, one crisis after another intensified in front of the Mujahideen. The pace of the movement slowed down in the face of various propaganda campaigns by the Sikhs and the British. The food and other supplies of the caravan came mainly from Hindustani supplies. The Sikhs tried their best to disrupt the supply system. There have already been a few accidents that have severely damaged the main movement. A group of Mujahideen from Bihar and Bengal, led by a Mujahideen leader named Maulvi Mahbub Ali, set out on their way to Peshawar and after entering the border province, they were attacked by Durrani Pathans and looted and disappeared and reached the main caravan. Maulvi Sahib was so shocked by the mistreatment of the Pathans that he started a tumultuous campaign to bring the people of the caravan back to the country. As a result, some people returned to the country with him disappointed. This caused irreparable damage to the Mujahideen forces. In the meantime, the Mujahideen faced extreme hardships due to severe winter and food shortages. Many times, day after day, they used to boil the leaves of the tree to prevent rot. In this critical situation, Maulana Abdul Hai Lakhnauvi, one of the dearest companions of Hazrat Syed Sahib and known as the most wise advisor, passed away (February 24, 1828 AD).
According to the author of ‘Wakaye-e Ahmadi’, the first new lashkar and financial aid came from Bangladesh during this critical period of the Mujahideen movement. The continuous fast came to an end after the aid sent by the Mujahideen of Dhaka arrived. The Mujahideen gained new impetus.
“Thousands of miles away from their homeland and family, the Mujahideen continued to conduct regular operations against the Sikhs in the unfavorable environment of unfamiliar remote mountainous areas, despite the limitless dangers.” In each of these campaigns led by Maulana Ismail Shahid, great success was achieved. In the end, Raja Ranjit Singh sent Hakim Azizuddin and Sardar Ojir Singh as envoys with a proposal to leave the entire area on the left side of the river inhabited by Syed Sahib and compromise with him. Syed Sahib wrote the terms of the treaty through Maulvi Khairuddin Shirkuti and Haji Bahadur Khan. He claimed that the Sikhs would no longer attack the areas on the border where Islamic rule had been established. Muslims must be given full religious freedom in the remaining Sikh-ruled areas. The occupied mosques must be vacated. “
Ranjit Singh accepted these conditions and prepared to make a respectable treaty with the Mujahideen. But General Vintora, the English adviser at the Lahore court, did not agree to the treaty proposal and suggested various tactics. They devised a blueprint for a conspiracy to provoke clashes between the Pathan Sardar and the Mujahideen. As a result, within a few days, the Mujahideen, instead of the Sikhs, were being attacked by the Pathan chiefs. Amir Bahadur Khan, the Amir of Peshawar, launched an attack on the Mujahideen at the instigation of General Vintwar. But Bahadur Khan was killed in the first attack and the army was defeated. When his younger brother Sardar Sultan Muhammad Khan Arbab Faizullah apologized to Syed Sahib, he was pardoned and reinstated as Amir of Peshawar. Maulana Syed Mazhar Ali Azimabadi was appointed as the Chief Qazi and Islamic Sharia was issued in all spheres of governance and judiciary. But in the face of widespread conspiracy, the system did not last long. Immersed in the deep darkness of religious and social prejudices, the transparent way of life of the Shariah caused many adverse reactions among the Pathan chiefs. On this occasion, General Vintora, an adviser to the Lahore court, distributed a large sum of money among the Pathan sardars and arranged for the assassination of the mujahid leaders on the same night. From the Burmese border to the whole of Hindustan, devoted Mujahideen leaders who left their homes and families and rushed to rescue the people of the border from the millstones of Sikh persecution were all brutally killed while praying Esha on the same night.
Syed Sahib was so shocked by the news of this horrific murder that he lost all enthusiasm to work among the Pathans. He called the Mujahideen and allowed them to return to their homeland. Some returned to the country with his permission. But the Mujahideen of Bengal, along with many others, were not ready to associate with Syed Sahib. According to the author of ‘Wakaye-e Ahmadi’, the constant presence of Maulana Imamuddin Bangali in this critical situation and the enthusiasm of Maulvi Enayetullah alias Miyazan Qazi created new morale among the Mujahideen.
Considering the location in the Peshawar Valley meaningless, Syed Saheb decided to move towards the hilly area of Kagan and proceeded towards it. But as they approached Balakot on the way, a large Sikh army led by Sardar Sher Singh came and surrounded the whole area. The last battle was fought at Balakot Maidan. Despite winning the first phase of the war, Amir al-Mu’minin Hazrat Syed Ahmad Berelbi and his chief companion Maulana Muhammad Ismail were martyred due to the betrayal of some of their allies. (May 7, 1831 AD). The end is a chapter of the jihad movement.
The number of those who were martyred in the battle of Balakot is said to be more than two hundred. Among them, the names of one hundred and forty-one leading men have been collected from the diaries of the war and inserted in various reliable books. So far it has been possible to collect the names of at least nine top Mujahideen of Bangladesh in the list of these immortal martyrs. They are: Munshi Muhammadi Ansari of Rajmahal, Maulana Lutfullah of Noakhali, Munshi Ibrahim of Momenshahi, Syed Muzaffar Hossain and Moum Karim Baksh of Dhaka.
The number of Mujahid Ghazi who was seriously injured in Bangladesh, including Maulana Imamuddin Bangali, is said to be about forty. But it was not possible to collect the list of injured Gazis even after searching a lot.
It has already been mentioned that Amir al-Mu’minin Hazrat Syed Ahmad and his top companions were martyred as a result of a conspiracy of a number of traitors inside the caravan on the Maidan of Balakot. But this martyrdom did not stop the jihad movement even for a moment. The bereaved Mujahideen could not forget the grief of Syed Sahib’s sudden martyrdom, but they were reorganized with incredible speed and moved to the deep hills to the west and continued their jihad with their center at Sitana.
The Mujahid Ghazis of Bengal returned to the country under the leadership of Maulana Imamuddin. Sufi Nur Muhammad came to Nezampur at the foot of Sitakunda hill and established his abode. Maulana Adul Hakim chose a place in Chunti village, a deep forested area on the Arakan road, further away from Chittagong. Maulvi Enayetullah alias Miyazan Kazi was arrested on the way back to the country and was martyred on the stage of Fasi. Maulana Imamuddin Bangali returned to Hajipur in Noakhali after a long stay at the center of Sitana. Meanwhile, a secret center of the movement was set up in the Bangshal area of Dhaka. From here the caravan of Mujahideen began to travel regularly to Sitana via Calcutta, from Calcutta to Patna and from Patna to Khanpur in Bahwalpur. This communication continued for almost a century. Badruddin, a prominent merchant of Bangshal, was one of the chief mentors of the Mujahideen in the region. He used to collect regular donations and send them to the center of Patna. From Patna the money would go to the Mujahideen’s Sitana camp. Lok Lashkar used to gather and they too used to carry Haji Sahib’s writings to Phulwari in Patna.
The movement of Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed was basically reformist. The Mujahideen operation on the border was just one chapter of it. With a special purpose in mind, he took the Mujahideen caravan to remote mountainous areas along the border. His purpose was fulfilled. In return for the Mujahideen’s blood donation, the Muslims of the border and the Punjab were largely spared the persecution of the aggressive Sikh forces. In addition, by establishing an Islamic caliphate in Peshawar and conducting it for more than four years, he has presented to the faith-rich Muslims of the next age a real model of caliphate in the ideals of prophethood, which has been a source of inspiration for the founders of Islamic caliphate to this day.
One of the most memorable personalities who has carried the legacy of the reform movement of Hazrat Syed Sahib to this land of Bengal is his eminent Caliph Maulana Karamat Ali Jaunpuri. All his life he has been trying to reform faith and morals in Bengal and Assam and has been sleeping in the soil of Bengal forever. The continuation of his efforts is still going on in this country through his worthy descendants and a large number of followers. Maulana Imamuddin and Maulana Abdul Hakim were mainly engaged in the work of Mujahid organization. They have done this till the last moment of their lives. Their contribution to the religious and social reform of the Muslim people is also noteworthy.
The chief successor of Sufi Nur Muhammad’s reform movement was Sufi Fateh Ali of Calcutta. The religious service of Maulana Fateh Ali’s caliph Maulana Abu Bakr Siddiq of Mojadded Furfura in Bengal and Maulana Nesharuddin of Sarsina and Maulana Ruhul Amin of 24 Parganas among his caliphs is well known in this country.
Needless to say, the efforts of these followers of Hazrat Syed Ahmad Shaheed were not limited to preaching. Apart from reforming the faith of the defeated Muslims in this country, their contribution was also of utmost importance in spreading education and creating rights awareness among the exploited and anarchist people. On the other hand, after the armed struggle of Balakot, from the sepoy revolution to the expulsion of the British from the subcontinent in 1947, the direct influence of the Mujahid movement of Syed Ahmad Shahid can be seen in every movement.