Sayyid Qutb’s name is Sayyid, an Egyptian Islamic thinker and revolutionary political organizer. Qutb is his family title. His ancestors came from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in northern Egypt. His father’s name was Haji Ibrahim Qutb. Ibrahim Qutb had five children. Sayyid Qutb, the elder of the brothers and sisters, fought for the establishment of an Islamic way of life and showed determination in the face of severe fire tests.
Sayyid Qutb was born in 1906 in the village of Musha in the Usiut district of Egypt. His mother Fatima Gosain Usman was a very religious and God-fearing woman. Haji Ibrahim, Syed’s father, used to cultivate but he was also very religious and virtuous. Sayed Qutb’s education started in the village primary school. He memorized the Qur’an at an early age according to his mother’s wishes. After completing his education at the Syed Tajhiyatu Darul Uloom Madrasa, he was admitted to the famous Madrasa Darul Uloom in Cairo. B.A. from that madrasa in 1933. Degree and became a professor there. After teaching for some time, he was appointed a school inspector under the Ministry of Education.
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He was sent to the United States by the Ministry of Education to read and listen to modern teaching methods. He returned home from abroad after completing a two-year course. While in America, he noticed the plight of materialist society. He firmly believed that only Islam could truly lead human society to prosperity. Soon after returning to the country from America, he began to verify the ideology, aims and programs of the Ikhyanul Muslimun party. In 1945 he became a member of that party. During World War II, the British government promised Egypt independence at the end of the war. As soon as the war ended, the Ikhwan party began a movement demanding the British leave Egypt. As a result, their popularity skyrocketed. In 1954, he was elected editor of the Ikhwan-run periodical, Ikhwanul Muslimun. Six months later, Colonel Nasser’s government shut down the newspaper. Because, that year, the Egyptian government renewed its agreement with the British, the newspaper criticized. And began arresting Ikhwanul activists. Among the arrested Ikhwan leaders was Syed Qutb. He was held in various prisons in Egypt. He had a high fever at the time of his arrest. His hands and feet were chained. Not only that, Syed Qutb was forced to walk to jail with a high fever. On the way, he fell unconscious a few times. When he regained consciousness, he would say: (Allahu Akbar wa lillahil hamd). As soon as he entered the jail, the jail staff started beating him and the torture continued for two hours. Then a trained dog was thrown at him. The dog bit his leg and dragged him to the prison yard. After the initial reception, he was interrogated for seven hours. His health was no longer worth the torture. But he continued to utter from the stone because of his strong faith: (Allahu Akbar wa lillahil hamd) The dark cell of the prison was locked at night. And during the day he had to be paraded regularly. He became seriously ill. He was afflicted with various ailments such as chest pain, heart weakness and joint pain all over. Yet fire began to burn on his body. The police dog scratched the nails on his body. Very hot water started pouring on his head and soon more cold water started pouring on his head. Kicking, killing, punching, swearing in obscene language, etc. were daily occurrences. On July 13, 1955, he was sentenced to 15 years rigorous imprisonment by a people’s court. He could not appear in court due to illness. After his one-year imprisonment, the Nasser government offered to release him if he apologized through the press. The answer given by Mardin Mumin to this proposal will remain in the pages of history. He said: “I am very surprised to hear that the oppressed are being asked to apologize to the oppressor. By God! If a few words of apology can save me from hanging, I am not willing to utter such words. I want to appear before God in such a way that I am pleased with Him and He is pleased with me. ”
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He later said the same thing every time he was advised to apologize: “If I have been properly imprisoned for a crime, I am satisfied. And if the power of falsehood has unjustly imprisoned me, then I will never apologize to falsehood. ” In mid-1964, Iraqi President Abdus Salam Arif visited Egypt. He recommended the release of Sayyid Qutb and was released by Colonel Nasser and confined to his residence. Less than a year later, he was arrested again on charges of attempting to seize power by force. But he was still under strict police guard. Not only him, but more than twenty thousand people including his brother Muhammad Qutb, sister Hamida Qutb and Amina Qutb were arrested. About seven hundred of them were women. During a visit to Moscow in 1965, Colonel Nasser announced in a statement that the Muslim Brotherhood had conspired to assassinate him. And with this announcement came widespread arrests of Ikhwan leaders and activists throughout Egypt. A new law enacted in March 1964 gave the president the power to penalize any person, including arrest, confiscation of property, etc. Syed Qutb He and other defendants testified before the tribunal in January and February 1964 that they had been subjected to inhumane physical torture in order to plead guilty. The president of the tribunal did not listen to the words of the accused. Syed Qutb and two of his accomplices were sentenced to death by a military tribunal in August 1966. There was a storm of protest all over the world. But on August 25, 1966, the sentence was carried out.
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Sayyid Qutb is one of the eminent scholars and writers of Egypt. The beginning of his literary life with children’s literature. He showed his talent by writing stories of prophets in interesting language for children. He writes stories to instill Islamic ideas in children and to develop their character. Later, he wrote a novel with Islamic ideology called ‘Ashwak’ (Kata). He later wrote two more novels of that kind. One is ‘Tifle Minal Qaria’ (village boy) and the other is ‘Madinatul Mashoor’ (Magic City).
The details of his books are as follows: (1) (Scenes of Resurrection drawn by the Qur’an). Resurrection is discussed in 150 places in 80 suras of the Holy Quran. Sayyid has skillfully drawn pictures of the Day of Judgment, Hell and Heaven from those details. (2) The artistic beauty of Al-Quran. In the 200-page library, Sayyid Qutb discusses the language, rhythm, rhetoric and heartfelt style of the Qur’an. (3) Islam and social justice. So far the 8th edition of the book has been published. The book has been translated into different languages of the world. (4) Tafsir fee jilalil Quran. One of Syed Qutb’s impeccable contributions. An ocean of knowledge finished in eight volumes. Not exactly the commentary – but the thoughts that came to his mind while studying the Qur’an – he drew on the chest of the paper and skillfully explained the way to correct the invitation, warning, knowledge of God, etc. hidden inside each verse. (5) The conflict between Islam and capitalism. (6) World peace and Islam. (6) Principles and methods of literary criticism. (6) Image of Islamic society. (9) I have seen that America. (10) (Thoughts of four brothers and sisters). The works of Syed Qutb, Muhammad Qutb, Amina Qutb and Hamida Qutb have been compiled together. (11) The story of the prophets. (12) (bunch of poems). (13) The trend of social revolution.
The Egyptian government accused Sayed Qutb of writing the book and sentenced him to death. The summary of the past allegations against him, published in an Egyptian military newspaper, is as follows: “The author strongly opposes both Western civilization and society, and Marxist doctrine. He claims that there is nothing for the human race in those doctrines. According to him, the present world has sunk into ignorance. In place of God’s sovereignty, human sovereignty has been unjustly established. The author revives the view of the Qur’an, emphasizes the need to eradicate ignorance, and calls for self-sacrifice. He calls all rulers except Allah Taghut. The author says that declaring jihad against Taghut is a condition of faith for every Muslim. He is inciting Muslims to build unity on the basis of Islamic creed and to fight uncompromisingly against this doctrine by calling unity on the basis of language, caste, creed, region, etc. erroneous. Through that book, the author sets out to wage jihad against the established government, to wreak havoc throughout Egypt, and to overthrow the established government. ”